Dr. Oskar Hagen, Ph.D, Biodiversity, Research, Science, Biology, Evolution, Ecology, Macroevolution, Macroecology, Conservation Biology, Computational Biology, Theoretical Ecology. Theoretical Biology, Informatics, mechanistic model, Eco-evolutionary modelling, eco-evo, process-based, biodiversity modelling, Fireflies, vagalume, Photopollution, Lightpollution, Hermetia, TreeSimGM, gen3sis, gasm, ETHZ, WSL, iDiv, UFZ, UFSCar, Brazil, Germany, Switzerland, Hagen, Oskar.



Oskar Hagen

Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) scholarship holder at the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv)


Hi and wellcome! I am a evolutionary biologist, computer modeler, and environmental scientist investigating the emergence of biodiversity across scales of time, space and complexity to improve our understanding of the processes behind Earth’s fascinating diversity.

IT Background

I first studied informatics with focus on communications networking in a two-year formal technical education at SENAI. This gave me the basis to develop on analytical and technical skills that would later prove valuable in my interdisciplinary scientific career.

Bachelor in Biology

I graduated in conservation Biology from UFSCar, where I investigated and quantified the effects of artificial illumination on firefly populations. I proposed fireflies as potential flagship species and bioindicators for artificial illumination, as they can be easily spotted at night and are charismatic. You can read about it here .

Master of Environmental Sciences

During my master's with a major in Ecology and Evolution and minor in global change and sustainability, I proposed a generalized model and evaluated the effects of different speciation and extinction processes on the shape of phylogenetic trees. I suggested an age-dependent speciation model with implications from a conservation and macroevolutionary/paleontological perspective. I explored this in collaboration with Antonelli Lab and the now called computational evolutionary and conservation biology group. As part of my contributions, I've authored several publications, developed the R-package TreeSimGM for simulating phylogenies, and extended the capabilities of the software PyRate, which estimates macroevolutionary rates from fossil data using a Bayesian framework.

Doctorate in Environmental Sciences

After working in both public and private sectors, I obtained my Doctor of Science at ETH Zürich , where I researched the role of past environmental conditions and eco-evolutionary feedback on the emergence of biodiversity. I developed an eco-evolutionary simulation framework called gen3sis, available as an R-package. Through combining this framework with new paleoenvironmental reconstructions and multiple biodiversity data sources, I use it to tackle a few of the many, now unlocked and potentially addressable, scientific questions.


My research focus is on spatial and temporal patterns of biodiversity, particularly using population-based spatially explicit mechanistic eco-evolutionary models (aka MEEMs) to simulate emergent life patterns. This involves using population and community ecology, macroecology, biogeography, historical ecology, evolution, macroevolution, paleontology, geology and climatology. Consequently, using MEEMs, I work on quantifying ecological, evolutionary and multiple deep-time dynamic environmental factors such as plate tectonics on shaping Biodiversity.

To access the role of environmental and eco-evolutionary feedbacks in shaping biodiversity, I test and create eco-evolutionary hypothesis by applying computational models, i.e. MEEMs such as gen3sis : General Engine for Eco-Evolutionary Simulations - avaiable as an R-package. In combination with paleo-envirolmental, empirical species distribution, traits and evolutionary histories data, this approach provide us a better understanding of ecological and evolutionary (i.e. speciation and extinction) processes that shape(d) multiple biodiversity patterns.

Ultimately, this can inform on the ecosystem responses to global changes, and especially the loss of diversification potential for biodiversity as well as how macro-dynamics most likely responded in the deep past. This may challenge current conservation practice, and move current concepts toward an increased focus on the conservation of evolutionary potential. For more on the topic see the blogs: Theoretical Ecology, The Century of Biology and 微信. For more on two recent publications, see iDiv press release or some of my latest publications publications.


Portuguesemother tongue






Formal Education

07.2016 – 01.2021

Doctor of Sciences: Environmental Sciences

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, ETH, Switzerland
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL, Switzerland

09.2010 – 09.2013

Master in Environmental Sciences: Ecology and Evolution

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, ETH, Switzerland

03.2006 – 12.2009

Bachelor in Biology: Conservation Biology

Federal University of São Carlos - campus Sorocaba, UFSCAR, Brazil

01.2005 – 12.2007

Vocational and Technical Education: Informatics – Communications Networking

SENAI Swiss-Brazilian - Regional Department of São Paulo, SENAI/DR/SP, Brazil

  • IT Skills: Windows, Mac and Linux | SQL, MYSQL and Access | Basic Electronics, Maintenance of Microcomputers, Networking Hardware | R, Python, C++, vb6, PHP, Matlab, Scilab and Javascript | HTML5, CSS3 and Javascript | QGIS, ArcGIS and MapInfo | Inkscape, Adobe Premier, Adobe Illustrator


Hagen_publication  O Hagen, DS Viana, T Wiegand, JM Chase, RE Onstein (2024) The macro-eco-evolutionary interplay between dispersal, competition, and landscape structure in generating biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions B

Hagen_publication  A Alzate, O Hagen (2024) Dispersal–diversity feedbacks and their consequences for macroecological patterns. Philosophical Transactions B

Hagen_publication  T Keggin, C Waldock, A Skeels A, O Hagen, C Albouy, S Manel, L Pellissier (2023) Diversity across organisational scale emerges through dispersal ability and speciation dynamics in tropical fish. BMC Biology

Hagen_publication  LM Boschman, FAS Cassemiro, L Carraro, J deVries, F Altermatt, O Hagen, C Hoorn, L Pellissier (2023) Freshwater fish diversity in the western Amazon basin shaped by Andean uplift since the Late Cretaceous. Nature Ecology & Evolution

Hagen_publication  A Skeels, LM Boschman, IR McFadden, EM Joyce, O Hagen, O Jiménez Robles, W Bach, V Boussange, T Keggin, W Jetz, L Pellissier (2023) Paleoenvironments shaped the exchange of terrestrial vertebrates across Wallace’s Line. Science

Hagen_publication   O Hagen (2023) Coupling eco-evolutionary mechanisms with deep-time environmental dynamics to understand biodiversity patterns. Ecography

Hagen_publication  X Li, X Xiang, F Jabbour, O Hagen, RC Ortiz, PS Soltis, DE Soltis, W Wang (2022) Biotic colonization of subtropical East Asian caves through time. PNAS

Hagen_publication  A Skeels, W Bach, O Hagen, W Jetz, L Pellissier (2022) Temperature-dependent evolutionary speed shapes the evolution of biodiversity patterns across tetrapod radiations. Systematic Biology

Hagen_publication  L Lyu, F Leugger, O Hagen, F Fopp, LM Boschman, JS Strijk, C Albouy, DN Karger, P Brun, Z Wang, NE Zimmermann, L Pellissier (2022) An integrated high‐resolution mapping shows congruent biodiversity patterns of Fagales and Pinales. New Phytologist

Hagen_publication  O Hagen*, A Skeels*, RE Onstein, W Jetz, L Pellissier (2021) Earth history events shaped the evolution of uneven biodiversity across tropical moist forests. PNAS

Hagen_publication  GFA Donati, N Zemp, S Manel, M Poirier, T Claverie, F Ferraton, T Gaboriau, R Govinden, O Hagen, S Ibrahim, D Mouillot, J Leblond, P Julius, L Velez, I Zareer, A Ziyad, F Leprieur, C Albouy, L Pellissier (2021) Species ecology explains the spatial components of genetic diversity in tropical reef fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological sciences

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, B Flueck, F Fopp, JS Cabral, F Hartig, M Pontarp, TF Rangel, L Pellissier (2021) gen3sis: A general engine for eco-evolutionary simulations of the processes that shape Earth’s biodiversity. PLoS biology

Hagen_publication  A Eyres, JT Eronen, O Hagen, K Böhning‐Gaese, SA Fritz (2021) Climatic effects on niche evolution in a passerine bird clade depend on paleoclimate reconstruction method. Evolution

Hagen_publication  G Yannic, O Hagen, F Leugger, D.N. Karger, L Pellissier (2020) Harnessing paleo-environmental modeling and genetic data to predict intraspecific genetic structure. Evolutionary Applications

Hagen_publication  GFA Donati, V Parravicini, F Leprieur, O Hagen, T Gaboriau, C Heine, M Kulbicki, J Rolland, N Salamin, C Albouy, L Pellissier (2019) A process‐based model supports an association between dispersal and the prevalence of species traits in tropical reef fish assemblages. Ecography

Hagen_publication  M Gerecke*, O Hagen*, J Bolliger, AM Hersperger, F Kienast, B Price, L Pellissier (2019) Assessing potential landscape service trade-offs driven by urbanization in Switzerland. Palgrave Communications

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, L Vaterlaus, C Albouy, A Brown, F Leugger, RE Onstein, C Novaes de Santana, CR Scotese, L Pellissier (2019) Mountain building, climate cooling and the richness of cold‐adapted plants in the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of Biogeography

Hagen_publication  RS Etienne, JS Cabral, O Hagen, F Hartig, AH Hurlbert, L Pellissier, M Pontarp, D Storch (2019) A minimal model for the latitudinal diversity gradient suggests a dominant role for ecological limits. The American Naturalist

Hagen_publication  M Pontarp, L Bunnefeld, JS Cabral, RS Etienne, SA Fritz, R Gillespie, CH Graham, O Hagen, F Hartig, S Huang, R Jansson, O Maliet, T Münkemüller, L Pellissier, TF Rangel, D Storch, T Wiegand, AH Hurlbert (2019) The latitudinal diversity gradient: Novel understanding through mechanistic eco-evolutionary models. Trends in Ecology and Evolution

Hagen_publication  BH Warren, O Hagen, F Gerber, C Thébaud, E Paradis, E Conti (2018) Evaluating alternative explanations for an association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness in multiple insular lineages. Evolution

Hagen_publication  L Pellissier, P Descombes, O Hagen, L Chalmandrier, G Glauser, A Kergunteuil, E Defossez, S Rasmann (2018) Growth-competition-herbivore resistance trade-offs and the responses of alpine plant communities to climate change. Functional Ecology

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, T Andermann, TB Quental, A Antonelli, D Silvestro (2017) Estimating age-dependent extinction: contrasting evidence from fossils and phylogenies. Systematic Biology

Hagen_publication  EO Hagen, O Hagen, JD Ibáñez-Álamo, OL Petchey, KL Evans (2017) Impacts of urban areas and their characteristics on avian functional diversity. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, T Stadler (2017) TreeSimGM: Simulating phylogenetic trees under general Bellman-Harris models with lineage-specific shifts of speciation and extinction in R. Methods in Ecology and Evolution

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, K Hartmann, M Steel, T Stadler (2015) Age-dependent speciation can explain the shape of empirical phylogenies. Systematic Biology

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, RM Santos, MN Schlindwein, VR Viviani (2015) Artificial night lighting reduces firefly (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) occurrence in Sorocaba, Brazil. Advances in Entomology

Hagen_publication  VR Viviani, MY Rocha, O Hagen (2010) Bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea: Lampyridae, Phengodidae, Elateridae) in the municipalities of Campinas, Sorocaba-Votorantim and Rio Claro-Limeira (SP, Brazil): biodiversity and influence of urban sprawl. Biota Neotropica

Extracurricular Activities

06.2017 – Now

05.2014 – Now

10.2007 – 12.2009

Director and Founder of Academic Journal (Jornal OCASO)

Federal University of São Carlos - campus Sorocaba, UFSCAR, Brazil

  • Under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Monica Caron

05.2006 – 12.2009

Director of information at the Academic Center

Federal University of São Carlos - campus Sorocaba, UFSCAR, Brazil


In my free time I enjoy handcrafting, playing the ukulele, photographing and observing nature (e.g. landscapes, wildlife and human beings)
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Above and Below Laos 2014

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Rock and Ice Heart Switzerland 2012

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Tarzan and Jane Portugal 2016

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The in and out side Zambia 2013

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Brown Laos 2014

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Rainbow Switzerland 2013

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Red Laos 2013

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Berg Dragonsaur Switzerland 2018

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Calm Forest Laos 2013

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Climby Switzerland 2017

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Float Laos 2013

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Lost and Found Tanzania 2017

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Small is Beautiful Brazil 2015


ORCID iD icon 0000-0002-7931-6571 Google Scholar icon ursszskAAAAJ Publons AAD-9453-2019 TwitterOskarHagen@hagen_oskar MastodonOskarHagen@hagen_oskar e-mailOskarHagen oskar@hagen.bio