Dr. Oskar Hagen, Ph.D, Biodiversity, Research, Science, Biology, Evolution, Ecology, Macroevolution, Macroecology, Conservation Biology, Computational Biology, Theoretical Biology, Informatics, mechanistic model, process-based, biodiversity modelling, Fireflies, vagalume, Photopollution, Lightpollution, Hermetia, TreeSimGM, gen3sis, gasm, ETHZ, WSL, UFSCar, Brazil, Switzerland, Hagen, Oskar.



Oskar Hagen

Dr. sc. ETH Zürich , PostDoc at German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research ( iDiv )

I am a biologist, computer modeller, environmental scientist investigating the emergence of biodiversity across scales of time, space and complexity in order to better understand the processes behind Earth’s fascinating biodiversity.

diverse_world cc Oskar Hagen

I’m a Swiss-Brazilian citizen with a family divided by the Atlantic, born in Venezuela and raised in the countryside of Brazil. The interdisciplinary of my interests forged an unusual career path. I first studied informatics in a 2 year formal technical education, then I graduated in Conservation Biology where I investigated and quantified the effects of artificial illumination at firefly’s populations. I proposed fireflies as potential flagship species and bioindicators for artificial ilumination once they can be easily spotted at night and are charismatic. During my master I proposed a generalized model and evaluated the effects of different extinction and speciation processes on phylogenetic trees shape, suggesting an age-dependent speciation with implications from a conservation and macroevolutionary/paleontological perspective. Yielding a few publications, an R-package TreeSimGM (simulates phylogenies) and the expansion of the software PyRate (estimates macroevolutionary rates from fossil data using a Bayesian framework). After working on public and private sectors I obtained my Doctor of Science , where I investigated the role of past environmental conditions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks on the emergence of biodiversity. I developed an eco-evolutionary simulations framework gen3sis, available as an R-package. Combining it with new paleoenvironmental reconstructions and multiple biodiversity data, I could tackle a few, of the many unlocked potentially addressable scientific questions. Currently I am working at iDiv as a PostDoc, where I tackle eco-evolutionary mechanisms and their biotic and abiotic interactions across scales of time, space and complexity. As a flexpool PostDoc I work closely with Dr. Renske Onstein, Prof. Dr. Jonathan Chase, Prof. Dr. Thorsden Wiegand and Dr. Duarte SPT Viana.

Current Research

In order to access the role of past environmental conditions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks in shaping biodiversity gradients, I developed a macroevolutionary computational mechanistic model called gen3sis (standing for General Engine for Eco-Evolutionary Simulations). This allows the inference of biodiversity patterns from historical environmental dynamics and better understand ecological and evolutionar (i.e. speciation and extinction) processes. Gen3sis is avaiable as an R-package and with it, it is possible to test and create new hypothesis under a general framework (i.e. acting mutually at evolutionary and ecological temporal resolution) and quantify processes shaping the biodiversity patterns we observe today. For that I must additionaly compile and recreate paleoenvirolmental conditions as well as obtain empirical species distribution, traits and evolutionary histories. Ultimately, gen3sis will inform on the ecosystem responses to global changes, and especially the loss of diversification potential for biodiversity as well as how macro-dynamics most likely responded in the deep past. This may challenge current conservation practice, and move current concepts toward an increased focus on the conservation of evolutionary potential. For more on the topic see the blogs: Theoretical Ecology, The Century of Biology and 微信. For more on two recent publications, see iDiv press release .


Portuguesemother tongue






Formal Education

07.2016 – 01.2021

Doctor of Sciences: Environmental Sciences

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, ETH, Switzerland
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL, Switzerland

09.2010 – 09.2013

Master in Environmental Sciences: Ecology and Evolution

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, ETH, Switzerland

03.2006 – 12.2009

Bachelor in Biology: Conservation Biology

Federal University of São Carlos - campus Sorocaba, UFSCAR, Brazil

01.2005 – 12.2007

Vocational and Technical Education: Informatics – Communications Networking

SENAI Swiss-Brazilian - Regional Department of São Paulo, SENAI/DR/SP, Brazil

  • IT Skills: Windows, Mac and Linux |SQL, MYSQL and Access | Basic Electronics, Maintenance of Microcomputers, Networking Hardware | R, Python, C++, vb6, PHP, Matlab, Scilab and Javascript | HTML5, CSS3 and Javascript | QGIS, ArcGIS and MapInfo | Inkscape, Adobe Premier, Adobe Illustrator

Complementary Formation

03.2010 – 08.2010

Obligatory Swiss Military Service

Schweizer Armee

  • Function: ABC Korporal
  • Defense of Atomic, Biological and Chemical weapons and formation as Sub-official

01.1999 – 06.2004

Classical Guitar, Rhythmic and Musical theory

Municipal Music School of Porto Feliz, EMM, Brazil


Hagen_publication  O Hagen*, A Skeels*, RE Onstein, W Jetz, L Pellissier (2021) Earth history events shaped the evolution of uneven biodiversity across tropical moist forests. PNAS

Hagen_publication  GFA Donati, N Zemp, S Manel, M Poirier, T Claverie, F Ferraton, T Gaboriau, R Govinden, O Hagen, S Ibrahim, D Mouillot, J Leblond, P Julius, L Velez, I Zareer, A Ziyad, F Leprieur, C Albouy, L Pellissier (2021) Species ecology explains the spatial components of genetic diversity in tropical reef fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological sciences

Hagen_publication  LM Boschman, FAS Cassemiro, L Carraro, J deVries, F Altermatt, O Hagen, C Hoorn, L Pellissier (2021) South American freshwater fish diversity shaped by Andean uplift since the Late Cretaceous. bioRxiv

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, B Flueck, F Fopp, JS Cabral, F Hartig, M Pontarp, TF Rangel, L Pellissier (2021) gen3sis: A general engine for eco-evolutionary simulations of the processes that shape Earth’s biodiversity. PLoS biology

Hagen_publication  A Eyres, JT Eronen, O Hagen, K Böhning‐Gaese, SA Fritz (2021) Climatic effects on niche evolution in a passerine bird clade depend on paleoclimate reconstruction method. Evolution

Hagen_publication  G Yannic, O Hagen, F Leugger, D.N. Karger, L Pellissier (2020) Harnessing paleo-environmental modeling and genetic data to predict intraspecific genetic structure. Evolutionary Applications

Hagen_publication  GFA Donati, V Parravicini, F Leprieur, O Hagen, T Gaboriau, C Heine, M Kulbicki, J Rolland, N Salamin, C Albouy, L Pellissier (2019) A process‐based model supports an association between dispersal and the prevalence of species traits in tropical reef fish assemblages. Ecography

Hagen_publication  M Gerecke*, O Hagen*, J Bolliger, AM Hersperger, F Kienast, B Price, L Pellissier (2019) Assessing potential landscape service trade-offs driven by urbanization in Switzerland. Palgrave Communications

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, L Vaterlaus, C Albouy, A Brown, F Leugger, RE Onstein, C Novaes de Santana, CR Scotese, L Pellissier (2019) Mountain building, climate cooling and the richness of cold‐adapted plants in the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of Biogeography

Hagen_publication  RS Etienne, JS Cabral, O Hagen, F Hartig, AH Hurlbert, L Pellissier, M Pontarp, D Storch (2019) A minimal model for the latitudinal diversity gradient suggests a dominant role for ecological limits. The American Naturalist

Hagen_publication  M Pontarp, L Bunnefeld, JS Cabral, RS Etienne, SA Fritz, R Gillespie, CH Graham, O Hagen, F Hartig, S Huang, R Jansson, O Maliet, T Münkemüller, L Pellissier, TF Rangel, D Storch, T Wiegand, AH Hurlbert (2019) The latitudinal diversity gradient: Novel understanding through mechanistic eco-evolutionary models. Trends in Ecology and Evolution

Hagen_publication  BH Warren, O Hagen, F Gerber, C Thébaud, E Paradis, E Conti (2018) Evaluating alternative explanations for an association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness in multiple insular lineages. Evolution

Hagen_publication  L Pellissier, P Descombes, O Hagen, L Chalmandrier, G Glauser, A Kergunteuil, E Defossez, S Rasmann (2018) Growth-competition-herbivore resistance trade-offs and the responses of alpine plant communities to climate change. Functional Ecology

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, T Andermann, TB Quental, A Antonelli, D Silvestro (2017) Estimating age-dependent extinction: contrasting evidence from fossils and phylogenies. Systematic Biology

Hagen_publication  EO Hagen, O Hagen, JD Ibáñez-Álamo, OL Petchey, KL Evans (2017) Impacts of urban areas and their characteristics on avian functional diversity. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, T Stadler (2017) TreeSimGM: Simulating phylogenetic trees under general Bellman-Harris models with lineage-specific shifts of speciation and extinction in R. Methods in Ecology and Evolution

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, K Hartmann, M Steel, T Stadler (2015) Age-dependent speciation can explain the shape of empirical phylogenies. Systematic Biology

Hagen_publication  O Hagen, RM Santos, MN Schlindwein, VR Viviani (2015) Artificial night lighting reduces firefly (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) occurrence in Sorocaba, Brazil. Advances in Entomology

Hagen_publication  VR Viviani, MY Rocha, O Hagen (2010) Bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea: Lampyridae, Phengodidae, Elateridae) in the municipalities of Campinas, Sorocaba-Votorantim and Rio Claro-Limeira (SP, Brazil): biodiversity and influence of urban sprawl. Biota Neotropica

Extracurricular Activities

11.2021 – Now

Reviewer of Bulletin of Mathematical Biology

09.2021 – Now

Reviewer of Journal of Biogeography

03.2021 – Now

Reviewer of Nature Ecology and Evolution

06.2019 – Now

Reviewer of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)

08.2018 – Now

Reviewer of Ecography

02.2018 – Now

Reviewer of Global Change Biology

06.2017 – Now

05.2014 – Now

Reviewer of Methods in Ecology and Evolution

10.2007 – 12.2009

Director and Founder of Academic Journal (Jornal OCASO)

Federal University of São Carlos - campus Sorocaba, UFSCAR, Brazil

  • Under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Monica Caron

05.2006 – 12.2009

Director of information at the Academic Center

Federal University of São Carlos - campus Sorocaba, UFSCAR, Brazil


On my free time, I enjoy observing and photographing the world around me.
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Above and Below Laos 2014

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Rock and Ice Heart Switzerland 2012

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Tarzan and Jane Portugal 2016

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The in and out side Zambia 2013

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Brown Laos 2014

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Rainbow Switzerland 2013

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Red Laos 2013

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Berg Dragonsaur Switzerland 2018

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Calm Forest Laos 2013

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Climby Switzerland 2017

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Float Laos 2013

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Lost and Found Tanzania 2017

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Small is Beautiful Brazil 2015